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Sandra Day O'Connor
former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Stateswd:Q11132
country of citizenship:
United States of America
educated at: Stanford Law School, Stanford University, Austin High School
occupation: judge, lawyer, politician
award received: Philadelphia Liberty Medal, Brandeis Medal, National Women's Hall of Fame, Presidential Medal of Freedom, National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, Texas Women's Hall of Fame, Elizabeth Blackwell Award, doctor honoris causa of Keiō University, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
position held: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Chancellor of the College of William & Mary, member of the State Senate of Arizona
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who served from her appointment in 1981 by President Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court.Prior to O'Connor's tenure on the Court, she was a judge and an elected official in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader of a state senate as the Republican leader in the Arizona Senate. Upon her nomination to the Court, O'Connor was confirmed unanimously by the Senate. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire effective upon the confirmation of a successor. Samuel Alito was nominated to take her seat in October 2005, and joined the Court on January 31, 2006.
As a moderate Republican, O'Connor tended to approach each case narrowly without arguing for sweeping precedents. She most frequently sided with the Court's conservative bloc; having the swing opinion in many decisions. She often wrote concurring opinions that limited the reach of the majority holding. Her majority opinions in landmark cases include Grutter v. Bollinger and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld. She also wrote in part the per curiam majority opinion in Bush v. Gore, and was one of three co-authors of the lead opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
Several publications have named her among the most powerful women in the world. On August 12, 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor of the United States, by President Barack Obama.
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book by James Bakerwd:Q5226356