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photo credits: English Wikipedia

Parmenides

ancient Greek philosopher

501   -   470

movement: Pre-Socratic philosophy, Eleatics
occupation: philosopher, writer, poet, legislator
student of: Xenophanes
influenced by: Heraclitus

Ebooks: on Wikisource

Parmenides of Elea (; Greek: Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, which included Southern Italy). He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. The single known work by Parmenides is a poem, On Nature, only fragments of which survive. In it, Parmenides prescribes two views of reality. In "the way of truth" (a part of the poem), he explains how reality (coined as "what is-is") is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, necessary, and unchanging. This is generally considered one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being, and has been contrasted with Heraclitus's statement that "No man ever steps into the same river twice" as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becoming. Parmenides and Heraclitus are therefore generally considered two of the founders of ontology. Scholars have generally believed that either Parmenides was responding to Heraclitus, or Heraclitus to Parmenides, though opinion on who was responding to whom changed over the course of the 20th century. In "the way of opinion", Parmenides explains the world of appearances, in which one's sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false and deceitful. He has been considered the founder of metaphysics or ontology.
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