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Raymond Aron

French philosopher, sociologist, journalist, and political scientist

1905   -   1983

country of citizenship: France
language of expression: French, German
educated at: École normale supérieure, Sciences Po, University of Paris (1896-1968), Lycée Condorcet
occupation: journalist, philosopher, writer, political scientist, sociologist, professor, economist
award received: Pour le Mérite for Sciences and Arts, Erasmus Prize, Goethe Prize, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
position held: president, director
student of: Hippolyte Rigault, Charles Salomon, Édouard Le Roy, Léon Brunschvicg, Célestin Bouglé, Alexandre Kojève, Leo Spitzer
influenced by: Montesquieu, Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Wilhelm Dilthey, Georg Simmel, Heinrich Rickert, Immanuel Kant

Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (French: [ʁɛmɔ̃ aʁɔ̃]; 14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals. In the book, Aron chastised French intellectuals for what he described as their harsh criticism of capitalism and democracy and their simultaneous defense of Marxist oppression, atrocities, and intolerance. Critic Roger Kimball suggests that Opium is "a seminal book of the twentieth century." Aron is also known for his lifelong friendship, sometimes fractious, with philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.As a voice of moderation in politics, Aron had many disciples on both the political left and right, but he remarked that he personally was "more of a left-wing Aronian than a right-wing one."Aron wrote extensively on a wide range of other topics. Citing the breadth and quality of Aron's writings, historian James R. Garland suggests, "Though he may be little known in America, Raymond Aron arguably stood as the preeminent example of French intellectualism for much of the twentieth century."
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Main Currents in Sociological Thought

book by the French sociologist Raymond Aron published in 1967

author: Raymond Aron


De Gaulle, Israël et les Juifs

book by Raymond Aron

author: Raymond Aron


De Giscard à Mitterrand : 1977-1983

book by Raymond Aron

author: Raymond Aron


Dimensions de la conscience historique

book by Raymond Aron

author: Raymond Aron


Democracy and Totalitarianism

book by Raymond Aron

author: Raymond Aron


Espoir et peur du siècle

book by Raymond Aron

author: Raymond Aron




En marge des combats douteux ( 1979 )

journal article from 'Politique étrangère' published in 1979

author: Raymond Aron

Idées politiques et vision historique de Tocqueville ( 1960 )

journal article from 'Revue française de science politique' published in 1960

author: Raymond Aron

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