photo credits: English Wikipedia
John von Neumann
HungarianAmerican mathematician and polymath
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1903

1957
country of citizenship:
Hungary, United States of America, AustriaHungary
educated at:
ETH Zurich, Eötvös Loránd University
occupation:
mathematician, computer scientist, chemist, physicist, engineer, inventor, economist, nuclear scientist, university teacher
award received:
Presidential Medal of Freedom, CarlGustaf Rossby Research Medal, Bôcher Memorial Prize, Enrico Fermi Award, Josiah Willard Gibbs Lectureship, Fellow of the American Physical Society, Silliman Memorial Lectures, Fellow of the Econometric Society
student of:
László Rátz
John von Neumann (; Hungarian: Neumann János Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a HungarianAmerican mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath. Von Neumann was generally regarded as the foremost mathematician of his time and said to be "the last representative of the great mathematicians"; a genius who was comfortable integrating both pure and applied sciences.
He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, representation theory, operator algebras, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, selfreplicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics.
He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics in the development of functional analysis, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor and the digital computer.
He published over 150 papers in his life: about 60 in pure mathematics, 60 in applied mathematics, 20 in physics, and the remainder on special mathematical subjects or nonmathematical ones. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while in hospital, was later published in book form as The Computer and the Brain.
His analysis of the structure of selfreplication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated, "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932."
During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanisław Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb. He developed the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosiontype nuclear weapon, and coined the term "kiloton" (of TNT), as a measure of the explosive force generated.
After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and consulted for a number of organizations, including the United States Air Force, the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. As a Hungarian émigré, concerned that the Soviets would achieve nuclear superiority, he designed and promoted the policy of mutually assured destruction to limit the arms race.
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series
0works
1Theory of Games and Economic Behavior
book by John von Neumann
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author:
John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern
articles
19Über die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik ( 1928 )
wetenschappelijk artikel
author: David Hilbert, John von Neumann, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim
The Logic of Quantum Mechanics ( 1936 )
scientific article
author: Garrett Birkhoff, John von Neumann
Allgemeine Eigenwerttheorie Hermitescher Funktionaloperatoren ( 1930 )
scientific article (publication date: December 1930)
author: John von Neumann
On a Certain Topology for Rings of Operators ( 1936 )
scientific article (publication date: 1936)
author: John von Neumann