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British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and authorwd:Q17714
country of citizenship: United Kingdom
native language: English
language of expression: English
educated at: University College, Trinity Hall, St Albans School, St Albans High School for Girls
occupation: theoretical physicist, cosmologist, writer
award received: Albert Einstein Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
position held: Lucasian Professor of Mathematics
student of: Dennis W. Sciama
influenced by: Dikran Tahta, Paul Dirac, Bertrand Russell, Karl Popper, Andrei Linde, Yakov Zeldovich, Albert Einstein
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.
Hawking's scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.Hawking achieved commercial success with several works of popular science in which he discusses his theories and cosmology in general. His book A Brief History of Time appeared on the Sunday Times bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons.
In 1963, Hawking was diagnosed with an early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Lou Gehrig's disease) that gradually paralysed him over the decades. After the loss of his speech, he was able to communicate through a speech-generating device – initially through use of a handheld switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle. He died on 14 March 2018 at the age of 76, after living with the disease for more than 50 years.
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