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John Ruskin

English writer and art critic

1819   -   1900

movement: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, free-thought
country of citizenship: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
native language: English
educated at: Christ Church, King's College London
occupation: writer, art critic, art historian, philosopher, painter, sociologist, university teacher, poet, literary critic, architect

John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, architecture, myth, ornithology, literature, education, botany and political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. He penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, and architectural structures and ornamentation. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art gave way in time to plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature, art and society. He was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century and up to the First World War. After a period of relative decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognised as having anticipated interest in environmentalism, sustainability and craft. Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of Modern Painters (1843), an extended essay in defence of the work of J. M. W. Turner in which he argued that the principal role of the artist is "truth to nature." From the 1850s, he championed the Pre-Raphaelites who were influenced by his ideas. His work increasingly focused on social and political issues. Unto This Last (1860, 1862) marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford, where he established the Ruskin School of Drawing. In 1871, he began his monthly "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain", published under the title Fors Clavigera (1871–1884). In the course of this complex and deeply personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society. As a result, he founded the Guild of St George, an organisation that endures today.
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Unto This Last

Essay on economics by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin


The Seven Lamps of Architecture

Essay on architecture by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin


The Bible of Amiens

Book by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin


Fors Clavigera

Pamphlet by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin

1871 or 1884

Modern Painters

Book on art by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin


The Stones of Venice

book by John Ruskin

author: John Ruskin


Elements of Drawing

author: John Ruskin

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