Cartagena Manifesto


The Cartagena Manifesto was written by Simón Bolívar during the Colombian and Venezuelan War of Independence, after the fall of the First Republic, explaining with great detail and precision what he believed to be the causes of this loss. It was written in Cartagena de Indias, on 15 December 1812. This is the first of Bolívar's public documents, which due to his later fame as the "Liberator of five nations," have become quite well known. The document contained the conceptual framework of his new agenda, which he then acted out in the field.
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original title: Memoria dirigida a los ciudadanos de la Nueva Granada por un caraqueño
language: Spanish
date of publication: 1813

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