country of citizenship: Abbasid Caliphate
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, Persian: استخری, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD [346AH]) was a 10th-century travel-author and geographer who wrote valuable accounts in Arabic of the many Muslim territories he visited during the Abbasid era of the Islamic Golden Age. There is no consensus regarding his origin. Some sources describe him as Persian, while others state he was Arab. The Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition states that his "biography is unknown, or almost so". The Encyclopedia Iranica states: "Biographical data are very meager. From his nesbas (attributive names) he appears to have been a native of Eṣṭaḵr in Fārs, but it is not known whether he was Persian".Istakhri's account of windmills is the earliest known. Istakhri met the celebrated traveller-geographer Ibn Haukul, while travelling in the Indus Valley. and Haukul's magnum opus, Kitab al-Surat al-Ard, incorporated the work of Istakhri.
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