photo credits: Wikimedia Commons
Roman emperor, philosopher and author (331–363) (r. 361-363) (331-363)wd:Q33941
country of citizenship: Ancient Rome
language of expression: Ancient Greek
occupation: politician, philosopher, writer
position held: Roman emperor, Ancient Roman senator, Byzantine emperor
student of: Maximus of Ephesus, Nicocles
Julian (Latin: Flavius Claudius Julianus; Greek: Ἰουλιανός; 331 – 26 June 363) was Roman emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. His rejection of Christianity, and his promotion of Neoplatonic Hellenism in its place, caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the Christian Church.A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian was orphaned as a child. He was raised by the Gothic slave Mardonius, who had a profound influence on him, providing Julian with an excellent education. Julian became caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355, and in this role he campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni at the Battle of Argentoratum (Strasbourg) in 357, leading his 13,000 men against a Germanic army three times larger. In 360, Julian was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers at Lutetia (Paris), sparking a civil war with Constantius. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, and named Julian as his successor.
In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sasanian Empire. The campaign was initially successful, securing a victory outside Ctesiphon in Mesopotamia. However, he did not attempt to besiege the capital and moved into Persia's heartland, but soon faced supply problems and was forced to retreat northwards while ceaselessly being harassed by Persian skirmishes. During the Battle of Samarra, Julian was mortally wounded under mysterious circumstances. He was succeeded by Jovian, a senior officer in the imperial guard, who was obliged to cede territory, including Nisibis, in order to save the trapped Roman forces.Julian was a man of unusually complex character: he was "the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters". He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and he believed that it was necessary to restore the Empire's ancient Roman values and traditions in order to save it from dissolution. He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy, and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity. His attempt to build a Third Temple in Jerusalem was probably intended to harm Christianity rather than please Jews. Julian also forbade the Christians from teaching and learning classical texts.
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anti-Christian polemic, originally in Greek, by Roman emperor Julian during his reign (361–363), now surviving only in quotations from Cyril of Alexandria’s refutation, portraying Christians as apostates from Judaism, an old accepted religionwd:Q291266