Michel Foucault cover

photo credits: Nemomain - CC-BY-SA-3.0

Michel Foucault

French philosopher

1926   -   1984

movement: atheism, post-structuralism
country of citizenship: France
native language: French
educated at: Lycée Henri-IV, École Normale Supérieure, University of Paris
occupation: philosopher, anthropologist, psychologist, historian, writer, sociologist, professor, screenwriter, literary critic, ethnologist
student of: Jean Hyppolite, Daniel Lagache, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Georges Canguilhem, Louis Althusser
influenced by: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gaston Bachelard, Martin Heidegger, Georges Bataille, Georges Canguilhem, Karl Marx, Maurice Blanchot, Jean-Toussaint Desanti, Louis Althusser, Pierre Hadot, Sigmund Freud, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gayle Rubin

Paul-Michel Foucault (; 15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault (French: [miʃɛl fuko]), was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic. Foucault's theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity. His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in communication studies, sociology, cultural studies, literary theory, feminism, and critical theory. Activist groups have also found his theories compelling. Born in Poitiers, France, into an upper-middle-class family, Foucault was educated at the Lycée Henri-IV, at the École Normale Supérieure, where he developed an interest in philosophy and came under the influence of his tutors Jean Hyppolite and Louis Althusser, and at the University of Paris (Sorbonne), where he earned degrees in philosophy and psychology. After several years as a cultural diplomat abroad, he returned to France and published his first major book, The History of Madness (1961). After obtaining work between 1960 and 1966 at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, he produced The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and The Order of Things (1966), publications which displayed his increasing involvement with structuralism, from which he later distanced himself. These first three histories exemplified a historiographical technique Foucault was developing called "archaeology". From 1966 to 1968, Foucault lectured at the University of Tunis before returning to France, where he became head of the philosophy department at the new experimental university of Paris VIII. Foucault subsequently published The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969). In 1970, Foucault was admitted to the Collège de France, a membership he retained until his death. He also became active in a number of left-wing groups involved in campaigns against racism and human rights abuses and for penal reform. Foucault later published Discipline and Punish (1975) and The History of Sexuality (1976), in which he developed archaeological and genealogical methods which emphasized the role that power plays in society. Foucault died in Paris of neurological problems compounded by HIV/AIDS; he became the first public figure in France to die from the disease. His partner Daniel Defert founded the AIDES charity in his memory.
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works

44

Dits et Écrits, vol. 2 : 1970-1975

book by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

1970

Discipline and Punish

book by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

1975

The Order of Things

book by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

1966

Sexual Morality and the Law

book by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

Madness and Civilization

book by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

1961 or 1964

The Archaeology of Knowledge

book by Michel Foucalt

author: Michel Foucault

1969

Hermeneutics of the Subject

la retranscription annotée du cours prononcé par Michel Foucault en 1982 au Collège de France

author: Michel Foucault

1980

Introduction to Kant's Anthropology

essay by Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

2008

articles

14

The Subject and Power ( 1982 )

article de Michel Foucault

author: Michel Foucault

[History of medicalization] ( 1977 )

scientific article

author: Michel Foucault

L'évolution de la notion d'"individu dangereux" dans la psychiatrie légale ( 1981 )

journal article from 'Déviance et société' published in 1981

author: Michel Foucault

Exposé et discussion ( 1970 )

journal article from 'Revue d'histoire des sciences' published in 1970

author: Michel Foucault

Le combat de la chasteté ( 1982 )

journal article from 'Communications' published in 1982

author: Michel Foucault

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