Pierre-Simon Laplace

French mathematician and astronomer

1749   -   1827

country of citizenship: France
native language: French
educated at: University of Caen Normandy, collège du Bois
occupation: mathematician, astronomer, physicist, politician, philosopher, university teacher, theoretical physicist
award received: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, Knight of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross of the Order of the Reunion, Fellow of the Royal Society, Royal Society, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
position held: Pair of France, member of the Sénat conservateur, Minister of the Interior
student of: Christophe Gadbled
influenced by: Leonhard Euler

Ebooks: on Wikisource

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (; French: [pjɛʁ simɔ̃ laplas]; 23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy. He summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (1799–1825). This work translated the geometric study of classical mechanics to one based on calculus, opening up a broader range of problems. In statistics, the Bayesian interpretation of probability was developed mainly by Laplace.Laplace formulated Laplace's equation, and pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in many branches of mathematical physics, a field that he took a leading role in forming. The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in mathematics, is also named after him. He restated and developed the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the Solar System and was one of the first scientists to postulate the existence of black holes and the notion of gravitational collapse. Laplace is remembered as one of the greatest scientists of all time. Sometimes referred to as the French Newton or Newton of France, he has been described as possessing a phenomenal natural mathematical faculty superior to that of any of his contemporaries. He was Napoleon's examiner when Napoleon attended the École Militaire in Paris in 1784. Laplace became a count of the Empire in 1806 and was named a marquis in 1817, after the Bourbon Restoration.
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