Ernst Haeckel cover

photo credits: Wikimedia Commons

Ernst Haeckel

German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, and artist (1834-1919)

1834   -   1919

country of citizenship: German Empire, Weimar Republic
language of expression: Latin, German
educated at: Frederick William University, Humboldt University of Berlin
occupation: biologist, physician, zoologist, philosopher, naturalist, artist, ecologist, ornithologist, university teacher, ichthyologist, botanist, explorer, photographer
award received: Darwin Medal, Cothenius Medal, Darwin–Wallace Medal, Linnean Medal, Bressa Prize
student of: Albert von Kölliker, Franz Leydig, Rudolf Virchow

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (German: [ˈʔɛɐ̯nst ˈhɛkl̩]; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist, naturalist, eugenicist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny. The published artwork of Haeckel includes over 100 detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures, collected in his Kunstformen der Natur ("Art Forms of Nature"). As a philosopher, Ernst Haeckel wrote Die Welträthsel (1895–1899; in English: The Riddle of the Universe, 1901), the genesis for the term "world riddle" (Welträtsel); and Freedom in Science and Teaching to support teaching evolution. Haeckel was also a promoter of scientific racism and embraced the idea of Social Darwinism.
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Die Welträthsel

Naturphilosophisches Werk Ernst Haeckels

author: Ernst Haeckel




System der Siphonophoren auf phylogenetischer Grundlage entworfen ( 1888 )

scientific article published in 1888

author: Ernst Haeckel

Das System der Medusen. Erster Teil einer Monographie der Medusen ( 1879 )

scientific article published in 1879

author: Ernst Haeckel

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