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Charles Dickens

English writer and social critic

1812   -   1870

genre: novel, gothic fiction
country of citizenship: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom
native language: English
occupation: writer, novelist, journalist, social critic, playwright, author
award received: Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts

Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are still widely read today.Born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison. Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed readings extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms. Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour, satire, and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication. Cliffhanger endings in his serial publications kept readers in suspense. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, and he often modified his plot and character development based on such feedback. For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, Dickens improved the character with positive features. His plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers.Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age. His 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are also frequently adapted, and, like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London and Paris, is his best-known work of historical fiction. Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell, G. K. Chesterton and Tom Wolfe—for his realism, comedy, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, and a vein of sentimentalism. The term Dickensian is used to describe something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings, such as poor social conditions or comically repulsive characters.
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A Christmas Carol

Novella by the English author Charles Dickens, first published in 1843

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: John Leech


A Tale of Two Cities

novel by Charles Dickens, published in 1859

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Hablot Knight Browne


Oliver Twist

monthly serial; second novel by Charles Dickens; published 1837–1839

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: George Cruikshank


Great Expectations

novel by Charles Dickens

author: Charles Dickens


David Copperfield

monthly serial; novel by Charles Dickens; published 1849–1850

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Hablot Knight Browne


Bleak House

monthly serial; novel by Charles Dickens; published 1852–1853

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Hablot Knight Browne


The Pickwick Papers

monthly serial; first novel by Charles Dickens; published 1836–1837

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Robert Seymour, Robert William Buss, Hablot Knight Browne


Nicholas Nickleby

monthly serial; novel by Charles Dickens; published 1838–1839

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Hablot Knight Browne


Little Dorrit

monthly serial; novel by Charles Dickens; published 1855–1857

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Hablot Knight Browne


The Cricket on the Hearth

novella by English author Charles Dickens; published 1845

author: Charles Dickens
illustrator: Daniel Maclise, John Leech, Richard Doyle, Clarkson Frederick Stanfield, Edwin Henry Landseer


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