Johann Wolfgang von Goethe cover

photo credits: Wikimedia Commons

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

German writer, artist, natural scientist and politician (1749–1832)

1749   -   1832


movement: Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism, Age of Enlightenment
country of citizenship: Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
native language: German
languages spoken, written or signed: German
educated at: Leipzig University, University of Strasbourg
occupation: theatre manager, botanist, politician, painter, philosopher, theologian, jurist, art critic, music critic, librarian, poet, travel writer, physicist, literary, novelist, playwright, autobiographer, diplomat, statesperson, polymath, aphorist, diarist, mineralogist, zoologist, art theorist, lawyer, composer, librettist, writer, visual artist
award received: Merit Order of the Bavarian Crown, Officer of the Legion of Honour, Order of Saint Anna, 1st class, Order of the White Falcon
position held: Geheimrat
student of: Adam Friedrich Oeser, Justus Christian Loder, Johann Schweighäuser
influenced by: Friedrich Schiller, Napoleon, Hafez, Johann Gottfried Herder, Voltaire

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, and critic. His works include plays, poetry, literature, and aesthetic criticism as well as treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. He is considered to be the greatest German literary figure of the modern era.Goethe took up residence in Weimar in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). He was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace.Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. In 1791 he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. His conversations and various shared undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels ever written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, and Shakespeare). Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe (1836). His poems were set to music by many composers including Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner and Mahler.
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