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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

German writer, artist and politician

1749   -   1832

movement: Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism
country of citizenship: Frankfurt, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
native language: German
educated at: Leipzig University, University of Strasbourg
occupation: poet lawyer, theatre manager, botanist, politician, painter, philosopher, theologian, jurist, art critic, music critic, librarian, poet, travel writer, physicist, literary, novelist, playwright, autobiographer, diplomat, statesperson, polymath, aphorist, diarist, mineralogist, zoologist, art theorist, lawyer, composer, librettist
award received: Merit Order of the Bavarian Crown, Officer of the Legion of Honour, Knight first class of the Order of Saint Anne, Order of the White Falcon
position held: Geheimrat
student of: Adam Friedrich Oeser, Justus Christian Loder

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (, German: [ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfɡaŋ fɔn ˈɡøːtə] (listen); 28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. He also contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar.Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, and in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist, historian, and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. His conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels ever written (along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse, and Don Quixote), while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name (along with Plato, Emanuel Swedenborg, Montaigne, Napoleon, and Shakespeare). Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe.
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play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

1808 or 1832

The Sorrows of Young Werther

autobiographical novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Elective Affinities

novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Theory of Colours

book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship

1795/96 Novel by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


The Works of J. W. von Goethe

collection of works by J. W. von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Italian Journey

book from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

author: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


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