photo credits: United Nations Information Office, New York - PD US FSA/OWI
British politician, army officer, and writerwd:Q8016
country of citizenship:
native language: English
language of expression: French, English
educated at: Harrow School, Royal Military College, Sandhurst, St George's School, Ascot, Stoke Brunswick School
occupation: politician, historian
award received: Nobel Prize in Literature, honorary citizen of the United States
position held: Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Secretary of State for Defence, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Secretary of State for the Home Department, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Minister of Munitions, Leader of the Opposition, Leader of the Conservative Party, First Lord of the Admiralty, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for Air, Secretary of State for War, Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Member of the 42nd Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 41st Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 40th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 39th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 38th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 37th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 36th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 35th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 34th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 31st Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 30th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 29th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 28th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Member of the 27th Parliament of the United Kingdom, Representative of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.
Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895, and saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, then as Secretary of State for War and Air, and finally for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain's Middle East policy. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure and depressing the UK economy.
Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945. His wartime leadership was widely praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy. After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.
Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in Britain and throughout the West, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe's liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and accomplished writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
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book by Winston Churchillwd:Q2896756
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