Author
photo credits: Wikimedia Commons
Henri Poincaré
French mathematician, physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science (18541912)
wd:Q81082
1854

1912
country of citizenship: France
native language: French
languages spoken, written or signed: French
educated at: Mines ParisTech, Science Faculty of Paris, lycée HenriPoincaré, École polytechnique, University of Paris
occupation: mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher of science, topologist, university teacher, researcher, writer
award received: Poncelet Prize, Sylvester Medal, Commander of the Legion of Honour, Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Bruce Medal, Bolyai Prize, Matteucci Medal, Royal Order of the Polar Star, Concours général
position held: president, seat 24 of the Académie française
student of: Charles Hermite
Jules Henri Poincaré (UK: [US: stress final syllable], French: [ɑ̃ʁi pwɛ̃kaʁe] (listen); 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as "The Last Universalist", since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.
As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. In his research on the threebody problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. He is also considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology.
Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Hendrik Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell's equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves (ondes gravifiques) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations.
The Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him.
Early in the 20th century he formulated the Poincaré conjecture that became over time one of the famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003 by Grigori Perelman.
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Series
0Works
5La Science et l'Hypothèse / Henri Poincaré
work by French mathematician Henri Poincaré
wd:Q3212744author: Henri Poincaré
1902
La Valeur de la Science / Henri Poincaré
work by Henri Poincaré
wd:Q3213421author: Henri Poincaré
1905
Notice sur les travaux scientifiques d'Henri Poincaré
Book by Henri Poincaré
wd:Q30726916author: Henri Poincaré
1886
Articles
19Cinquième complément à l’analysis situs ( 1904 )
1904 article by Henri Poincare
author: Henri Poincaré
Sur les propriétés du potentiel et sur les fonctions Abéliennes ( 1899 )
scientific article (publication date: 1899)
author: Henri Poincaré
Sur les résidus des intégrales doubles ( 1887 )
scientific article (publication date: 1887)
author: Henri Poincaré