Archimedes cover

photo credits: Wikimedia Commons


ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer

286   -   211

country of citizenship: ancient Syracuse
language of expression: Ancient Greek
occupation: mathematician, physicist, astronomer, inventor, military engineer, philosopher, engineer

Ebooks: on Wikisource

Archimedes of Syracuse (; Ancient Greek: Ἀρχιμήδης; Doric Greek: [ar.kʰi.mɛː.dɛ̂ːs]; c. 287 – c. 212 BC) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered to be the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including: the area of a circle; the surface area and volume of a sphere; area of an ellipse; the area under a parabola; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution; and the area of a spiral.His other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi; defining and investigating the spiral that now bears his name; and devising a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding hydrostatics and statics. Archimedes' achievements in this area include a proof of the principle of the lever, the widespread use of the concept of center of gravity, and the enunciation of the law of buoyancy. He is also credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. Archimedes died during the siege of Syracuse, where he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder, which Archimedes had requested be placed on his tomb to represent his mathematical discoveries. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus in Byzantine Constantinople, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the 6th century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance and again in the 17th century, while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.
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Book of Lemmas

mathematical treatise attributed to Archimedes

author: Archimedes

The Sand Reckoner

work by Archimedes

author: Archimedes


mathematical treatise attributed to Archimedes, surviving fragmentarily in an Arabic version and a Greek copy in the Archimedes Palimpsest, about a dissection puzzle

author: Archimedes

On the Sphere and Cylinder

work by Archimedes, calculating via the method of exhaustion the surface area of a sphere and the volume of a ball

author: Archimedes


On Spirals

treatise by Archimedes about the Archimedean spiral

author: Archimedes


The Method of Mechanical Theorems

work by Archimedes, in the form of a letter from Archimedes to Eratosthenes, about the use of infinitesimals and mechanical analogies to levers to solve geometric problems

author: Archimedes


On Floating Bodies

book by Archimedes about the positions that various solids will assume when floating in a fluid, according to their form and the variation in their specific gravities

author: Archimedes


On the Equilibrium of Planes

treatise by Archimedes about the law of the lever, the centre of gravity of the triangle, the trapezoid, and the parabolic segments

author: Archimedes


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