René Descartes cover

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René Descartes

French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist

1596   -   1650

movement: rationalism
country of citizenship: France
native language: French
educated at: collège Henri-IV de La Flèche, Leiden University
occupation: philosopher, mathematician, musicologist, physicist, astronomer, music theorist, correspondent, automatier

René Descartes (, UK also ; French: [ʁəne dekaʁt]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces. He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the Dutch Golden Age.Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system (see below) was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers. He frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, an early modern treatise on emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". His best known philosophical statement is "I think, therefore I am" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; Latin: Ego cogito, ergo sum), found in Discourse on the Method (1637; written in French and Latin) and Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation. Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza, and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.
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works

23

Fifth Meditation

philosophical treatise by Descartes

author: René Descartes

1640

Meditations on First Philosophy

philosophy book by Descartes

author: René Descartes

1640

The World

book by René Descartes

author: René Descartes

1663

Discourse on the Method

book by Descartes

author: René Descartes

1636

De homine

llibre de Descartes

author: René Descartes

Principles of Philosophy

book by Descartes

author: René Descartes

1643

The Description of the Human Body

unfinished treatise written in 1647 by René Descartes

author: René Descartes

Third Meditation

philosophical treatise by Descartes

author: René Descartes

1640

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