Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist known as the founding father of psychoanalysis

1856   -   1939

country of citizenship: Austria, Austria-Hungary
native language: German
educated at: University of Vienna
occupation: psychoanalyst, neurologist, author
award received: Goethe Prize
position held: Geheimrat
student of: Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus, Alois Pokorny, Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke, Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault, Jean-Martin Charcot, Josef Stefan

Sigmund Freud ( FROYD; German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. It thus continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W.H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives."
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Why War?

1933 paper co-authored by Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud

author: Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud



psychological experience of something as strangely familiar, rather than simply mysterious

author: Sigmund Freud


Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality

1905 work by Sigmund Freud

author: Sigmund Freud


The Interpretation of Dreams

1899 book by Sigmund Freud

author: Sigmund Freud


Totem and Taboo

book by Sigmund Freud

author: Sigmund Freud


The Ego and the Id

book by Sigmund Freud

author: Sigmund Freud


The Future of an Illusion

book on religion by Sigmund Freud

author: Sigmund Freud




Eine Teufelsneurose im siebzehnten Jahrhundert ( 1923 )

redactioneel artikel

author: Sigmund Freud

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