far-right political movement that emerged in France during the late 1960s
Nouvelle Droite (English: "New Right"), sometimes shortened to the initialism "ND", is a far-right political movement that emerged in France during the late 1960s. The movement has links to older fascist groups and some political scientists regard it as a form of fascism, although this characterisation is rejected by many of the ND's adherents. The Nouvelle Droite is at the origin of the wider European New Right (ENR).The Nouvelle Droite began with the formation of Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne (GRECE; Research and Study Group for European Civilization), a French group guided largely by the philosopher Alain de Benoist, in Nice in 1968. De Benoist and other early GRECE members had long been involved in far-right politics, and their new movement was influenced by older rightist currents of thought like the German conservative revolutionary movement. Although rejecting left-wing ideas of human equality, the Nouvelle Droite was also heavily influenced by the tactics of the New Left and forms of Marxism. Particularly influential were the ideas of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, with ND members describing themselves as "Gramscians of the Right". The ND achieved a level of mainstream respectability in France during the 1970s, although this declined following sustained liberal and leftist opposition. ND members joined several political parties, becoming a particularly strong influence within the French National Front, while ND ideas also influenced far-right groups elsewhere in Europe. In the 21st century, the ND has influenced far-right groups such as the identitarian movement and forms of national-anarchism.
The ND opposes multiculturalism and the mixing of different cultures within a single society. It opposes liberal democracy and capitalism and promotes localised forms of what it terms "organic democracy", with the intent of taking away the control of oligarchy. It pushes for an "archeofuturistic" or a type of non-reactionary "revolutionary conservative" method to the reinvigoration of the European identity and culture, while encouraging the preservation of certain regions where Europeans and their descendants may reside. Concurrently, it attempts to sustain the protection of the variance of ethnicities and identities around the globe, defending the right of each group of peoples to keep their own lands and regions to occupy. To achieve its goals, the ND promotes what it calls "metapolitics", seeking to influence and shift European culture in ways sympathetic to its cause over a lengthy period of time rather than by actively campaigning for office through political parties.
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