hard science fiction

science fiction with emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy

Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by concern for scientific accuracy and logic. The term was first used in print in 1957 by P. Schuyler Miller in a review of John W. Campbell's Islands of Space in the November issue of Astounding Science Fiction. The complementary term soft science fiction, formed by analogy to hard science fiction, first appeared in the late 1970s. The term is formed by analogy to the popular distinction between the "hard" (natural) and "soft" (social) sciences. Science fiction critic Gary Westfahl argues that neither term is part of a rigorous taxonomy; instead they are approximate ways of characterizing stories that reviewers and commentators have found useful.Stories revolving around scientific and technical consistency were written as early as the 1870s with the publication of Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea in 1870, among other stories. The attention to detail in Verne's work became an inspiration for many future scientists and explorers, although Verne himself denied writing as a scientist or seriously predicting machines and technology of the future.
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genre: hard science fiction


The Three-Body Problem

2008 science fiction novel by Liu Cixin

author: Liu Cixin


The Martian

2011 science fiction novel by Andy Weir

author: Andy Weir

2014 or 2011 or 2013

Jurassic Park

1990 novel by Michael Crichton

author: Michael Crichton


Permutation City

novel by Greg Egan

author: Greg Egan



novel by Greg Egan

author: Greg Egan


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