Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional spy created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. He is the protagonist of the James Bond series of novels, films, comics and video games. Fleming wrote twelve Bond novels and two short story collections. His final two books—The Man with the Golden Gun (1965) and Octopussy and The Living Daylights (1966)—were published posthumously.
The character is a Secret Intelligence Service agent, code number 007, residing in London but active internationally. Bond was a composite character who was based on a number of commandos whom Fleming knew during his service in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, to whom Fleming added his own style and a number of his own tastes. Fleming claimed that Bond's name was appropriated from the American ornithologist of the same name; however, new reports have emerged claiming Fleming may have got the name from a Welsh agent he served with, one James C. Bond. Bond has a number of consistent character traits which run throughout the books, including an enjoyment of cars, a love of food, alcohol and love-making, and a smoking habit of 60 custom-made cigarettes a day.
Since Fleming's death in August 1964, there have been other authorised writers of Bond material, including John Gardner, who wrote fourteen novels and two novelizations; and Raymond Benson, who wrote six novels, three novelizations and three short stories. There have also been other authors who wrote one book each, Kingsley Amis (under the pseudonym Robert Markham), Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd, and Anthony Horowitz. Additionally, a series of novels based on Bond's youth—Young Bond—was written by Charlie Higson.
As a spin-off from the original literary work, there was a television adaptation of the first novel, Casino Royale, in which Bond was depicted as an American agent. A comic strip series also ran in the Daily Express newspaper. There have been 26 Bond films; seven actors have played Bond in these films.
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