Goldman Sachs

U.S. investment bank

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. It offers services in investment management, securities, asset management, prime brokerage, and securities underwriting. It also provides investment banking to institutional investors. The bank is one of the largest investment banking enterprises in the world by revenue, and is a primary dealer in the United States Treasury security market and more generally, a prominent market maker. It is considered a systemically important bank by the Financial Stability Board. The group also owns Goldman Sachs Bank USA, a direct bank. Goldman Sachs was founded in 1869 and is headquartered at 200 West Street in Lower Manhattan with additional offices in other international financial centers.As a result of its involvement in securitization during the subprime mortgage crisis, Goldman Sachs suffered during the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and it received a $10 billion investment from the United States Department of the Treasury as part of the Troubled Asset Relief Program, a financial bailout created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. The investment was made in November 2008 and was repaid in June 2009.Several former employees of Goldman Sachs have moved on to work in government positions. Notable examples include former U.S. Secretaries of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin, Robert Rubin, and Henry Paulson; former Under Secretary of State John C. Whitehead; former chief economic advisor Gary Cohn; Governor of New Jersey Phil Murphy and former Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine; former Prime Minister of Italy Mario Monti; former European Central Bank President and current Prime Minister of Italy Mario Draghi; former Bank of Canada and Bank of England Governor Mark Carney; British Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak; and the former Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Turnbull. In addition, former Goldman employees have headed the New York Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange Group, the World Bank, and competing banks such as Citigroup and Merrill Lynch. As of May 2020, the company was ranked 62nd on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Goldman Sachs was embroiled in a major scandal with 1MDB and paid a record fine of over $2 billion under the FCPA, making it on the top 10 list of FCPA violations as of 2021.
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