history of Hungary

aspect of history

Hungary in its modern (post-1946) borders roughly corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain (the Pannonian basin). During the Iron Age, it was at the boundary of Celtic, Illyrian and Iranian (Scythian) cultural spheres. The name "Pannonian" comes from Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire. Only the western part of the territory (the so-called Transdanubia) of modern Hungary formed part of the ancient Roman Province of Pannonia. The Roman control collapsed with the Hunnic invasions of 370–410 and Pannonia was part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom during the late 5th to mid 6th century, succeeded by the Avar Khaganate (6th to 9th centuries). The Magyar invasion takes place during the 9th century. The Magyars were Christianized at the end of the 10th century, and the Christian Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000, ruled by the Árpád dynasty for the following three centuries. In the high medieval period, the kingdom expanded beyond Pannonia, to the Adriatic coast. In 1241 during the reign of Béla IV, Hungary was invaded by the Mongols under Batu Khan. The outnumbered Hungarians were decisively defeated at the Battle of Mohi by the Mongol army. King Béla fled to the Holy Roman Empire and left the Hungarian population under the mercy of the Mongols. In this invasion more than 500,000 Hungarian population were massacred and the whole kingdom reduced to ashes. After the extinction of the Árpád dynasty in 1301, the late medieval kingdom persisted, albeit no longer under Hungarian monarchs, and gradually reduced due to the increasing pressure by the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Hungary bore the brunt of the Ottoman wars in Europe during the 15th century. The peak of this struggle took place during the reign of Matthias Corvinus (r. 1458–1490). The Ottoman–Hungarian wars concluded in significant loss of territory and the partition of the kingdom after the Battle of Mohács of 1526. Defense against Ottoman expansion shifted to Habsburg Austria, and the remainder of the Hungarian kingdom came under the rule of the Habsburg emperors. The lost territory was recovered with the conclusion of the Great Turkish War, thus the whole of Hungary became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the nationalist uprisings of 1848, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 elevated Hungary's status by the creation of a joint monarchy. The territory grouped under the Habsburg Archiregnum Hungaricum was much larger than modern Hungary, following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 with settled the political status of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. After the First World War, the Central Powers enforced the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. The treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Trianon detached around 72% of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, ceded to Czechoslovakia, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, First Austrian Republic, Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. Afterwards a short-lived People's Republic was declared that was followed by a restored Kingdom of Hungary, but governed by the regent, Miklós Horthy who officially represented the Hungarian monarchy of Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary who was held in captivity during his last months at Tihany abbey. Between 1938 and 1941, Hungary recovered part of her lost territories. During World War II Hungary came under German occupation in 1944 that was followed by the Soviet occupation and the loss of the war. After World War II, the Second Hungarian Republic was established in Hungary's current-day borders, as a socialist People's Republic during 1949–1989 and as the Third Republic of Hungary under an amended version of the constitution of 1949 since October 1989, with a new constitution adopted in 2011. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004.
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main subject: history of Hungary


Between the Living and the Dead

book by Éva Pócs

author: Éva Pócs


Gesta Hungarorum

boek van Anonymus

author: Bele Regis Notarius


Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum

medieval chronicle

author: Simon of Kéza


Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas

German biographical dictionary on historical persons from South East Europe (Balkan, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania)

1974 or 1976 or 1979 or 1981

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