science of abstract objects and structures
Mathematics (from Ancient Greek μάθημα; máthēma: 'knowledge, study, learning') is an area of knowledge that includes such topics as numbers (arithmetic, number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and the spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (calculus and analysis).Most mathematical activity involves discovering and proving properties of abstract objects by pure reasoning. These objects are either abstractions from nature, such as natural numbers or lines, or — in modern mathematics — entities that are stipulated with certain properties, called axioms. A proof consists of a succession of applications of some deductive rules to already known results, including previously proved theorems, axioms and (in case of abstraction from nature) some basic properties that are considered as true starting points of the theory under consideration. The result of a proof is called a theorem.
Mathematics is widely used in science for modeling phenomena. This enables the extraction of quantitative predictions from experimental laws. For example, the movement of planets can be accurately predicted using Newton's law of gravitation combined with mathematical computation. The independence of mathematical truth from any experimentation implies that the accuracy of such predictions depends only on the adequacy of the model for describing the reality. Inaccurate predictions imply the need for improving or changing mathematical models, not that mathematics is wrong in the models themselves. For example, the perihelion precession of Mercury cannot be explained by Newton's law of gravitation but is accurately explained by Einstein's general relativity. This experimental validation of Einstein's theory shows that Newton's law of gravitation is only an approximation, though accurate in everyday application.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural sciences, engineering, medicine, finance, computer science and social sciences.
Some areas of mathematics, such as statistics and game theory, are developed in close correlation with their applications and are often grouped under applied mathematics. Other mathematical areas are developed independently from any application (and are therefore called pure mathematics), but practical applications are often discovered later. A fitting example is the problem of integer factorization, which goes back to Euclid, but which had no practical application before its use in the RSA cryptosystem (for the security of computer networks).
In the history of mathematics, the concept of a proof and its associated mathematical rigour first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when algebra and infinitesimal calculus were added to arithmetic and geometry as main areas of mathematics. Since then, the interaction between mathematical innovations and scientific discoveries has led to a rapid increase in the development of mathematics. At the end of the 19th century, the foundational crisis of mathematics led to the systematization of the axiomatic method. This, in turn, gave rise to a dramatic increase in the number of mathematics areas and their fields of applications. An example of this is the Mathematics Subject Classification, which lists more than sixty first-level areas of mathematics.
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book by Cathy O'Neil on the detrimental impact of applying artificial intelligence without questioning underlying social implications
author: Cathy O'Neil