The French philosopher Henri Bergson coined the term open society (French: société ouverte) in 1932. The idea was further developed during World War II by the Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper.Bergson describes a closed society as a closed system of law or religion. It is static, like a closed mind. Bergson suggests that if all traces of civilization were to disappear, the instincts of the closed society for including or excluding others would remain. In contrast, an open society is dynamic and inclined to moral universalism.Popper saw the open society as part of a historical continuum reaching from the organic, tribal, or closed society, through the open society (marked by a critical attitude to tradition) to the abstract or depersonalized society lacking all face-to-face interaction transactions.
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