persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

discrimination, torture, and murder concerning homosexual people in Nazi Germany

Under the rule of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, gay men and (to a lesser extent) lesbians were persecuted with thousands of gay men imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. Beginning in 1933, gay organizations were banned, scholarly books about homosexuality, and human sexuality in general (such as those from the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, run by Jewish gay rights campaigner Magnus Hirschfeld), were burned. The Gestapo compiled lists of homosexuals, and gay clubs were shut down. Some gay men emigrated while others withdrew from homosexual practices or engaged in heterosexual relationships to cover their identities. Between 1933 and 1945, an estimated 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals, of whom some 50,000 were officially sentenced. Most of these men served time in regular prisons, and an estimated 5,000 to 15,000 of those sentenced were incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps. Leading scholar Rüdiger Lautmann argues that the death rate of homosexuals in concentration camps may have been as high as 60%. Homosexuals in the camps suffered an unusual degree of cruelty by their captors. In 2002, the German government apologized to the gay community for the persecution of homosexuals by the Nazi government. In 2005, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the Holocaust which included the persecution of homosexuals. Memorials to the gay victims of Nazism have been constructed around the world. Several movements like the Silence=death project have reclaimed the pink triangle symbol in support of gay rights, AIDS awareness, and related issues.
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main subject: persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

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