Rituals or actions employed to manipulate natural or supernatural beings and forces
Magic is the practice of beliefs, rituals and/or actions which are said to manipulate natural or supernatural forces, with or without communication with supernatural beings. Typically, magic is categorised as independent from both religion and science, due to its various beliefs and practices.Individuals who engage in magical practices are referred to as either magicians or witches. Although, connotations have varied from positive to negative at times throughout history, magic "continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today".Within Western culture, magic has been linked to ideas of the Other, foreignness, and primitivism; indicating that it is "a powerful marker of cultural difference" and likewise, a non-modern phenomenon. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Western intellectuals perceived the practice of magic to be a sign of a primitive mentality and also commonly attributed it to marginalised groups of people.In modern occultism and Neopagan religions, many self-described magicians and witches regularly practice ritual magic; defining magic as a technique for bringing about change in the physical world through the force of one's will. This definition was popularised by Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), an influential British occultist, and since that time other religions (e.g. Wicca and LaVeyan Satanism) and magical systems (e.g. Chaos Magic) have adopted it.
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