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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm ( ) is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can use conditionals to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking) and deduce valid inferences (referred to as automated reasoning), achieving automation eventually. Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus".In contrast, a heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. For example, social media recommender systems rely on heuristics in such a way that, although widely characterized as "algorithms" in 21st century popular media, cannot deliver correct results due to the nature of the problem. As an effective method, an algorithm can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a welldefined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of welldefined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input. Source: Wikipedia (en)
Works about algorithm 11

Faire la morale aux robots : Une introduction à l'éthique des algorithmes

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Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Algorithms

Introduction to Algorithms

The Algorithm Design Manual

Numerical Recipes

SCOUT: a simple gamesearching algorithm with proven optimal properties

Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs

The Art of Computer Programming

The Cs Detective

Algorithmique
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